Collective Bargaining Agreements Italy
In these cases, the employer has the right to exempt the worker from work during the notice period and to pay him (or his heirs in the event of death). This payment must be calculated taking into account the worker`s gross annual basic salary, as well as any additional monthly salaries provided for in the national collective agreement in force, the variable remuneration paid during the last three years and the value of the ancillary benefits granted to the worker. Trade unions that join the largest federations play a very important role in collective bargaining in the civil service and enjoy protection with regard to trade union activities at company level. The Workers` Statute of 1970 regulates trade union activities at company level. The statute was an important means of supporting trade unions at company level. Employers` organisations and industrial organisations within large organisations are usually involved in negotiations at sector level. In most cases, the industrial federations of the three major confederations agree on a common platform of demands and jointly sign the final agreement. In the metallurgical industry, this was not the case for some time, where no agreement was signed in 2009 and 2012 by the CGIL-Verband FIOM, the largest association involved. But with the agreement signed in 2016, this ceased to be the case, with the unions of the three confederations supporting the deal. How can employers change existing employment contracts? For civil servants, there is another system of employee representation (Act No. 29 of 3 February 1993), but the rights are the same. Collective agreements govern the election and term of office of workers` representatives. A change of representative occurs after the signing of a new collective agreement.
In Italy, collective bargaining takes place mainly at two levels: at sectoral level – the most important – and at company level or sometimes at district level. In addition, agreements concluded at national level between employers and trade unions have been used to implement initiatives at EU level, such as the agreement on teleworking. At the enterprise level, negotiations include mechanisms for improving productivity and promoting innovation, as well as the distribution of the benefits of increased productivity. An ISTAT survey of agreements for the period 2012-2013 showed that the most frequently dealt with issues at company level were fixed wage elements (61.1%); bonuses based on results (58.9%); hours and work organization (50.7%); vocational training (44.6%); Social benefits (welfare) 38.5%; coping with the crisis (31.9%); types of employment contract (25.3%); trade union relations and trade union rights (24.7 per cent); rating (22.8%); and equal opportunities (15.7%).  Italy: Institutionalisation and resilience in a changing economic and political environment by Roberto Pedersini in Collective bargaining in Europe: towards an endgame, edited by Torsten Müller, Kurt Vandaele and Jeremy Waddington, ETUI, 2019 www.etui.org/content/download/36694/368812/file/CB+Vol+II+Chapter+16.pdf (called 25.03.2020) (ii) collective agreements at territorial and company level. Collective agreements are not binding like the law, as they must be respected primarily by employers who are (i) members of employers` organizations that execute collective agreements or (ii) refer explicitly or implicitly to the provisions of collective agreements; In any case, trade unions are private organisations and the negotiation process is not based on laws, but on agreements between trade unions and employers` organisations. .